There are two compositions recorded in the Guru Granth Sahib under the title ‘Barah Maha’ (a poetic genre based on the twelve months).
A poetic genre that delivers Guru’s teaching through twelve months of Indic and Panjabi calendar.
The first, revealed by Guru Nanak Sahib, is recorded on pages 1107 through 1110, in Rag Tukhari (a musical mode). The second, revealed by Guru Arjan Sahib, is recorded on pages 133 through 136, in Rag Majh. Guru Nanak Sahib’s composition has seventeen stanzas, and Guru Arjan Sahib’s composition has fourteen stanzas. The subject of both compositions is the same, as both share personal experiences.

Barah Maha, a poetic-genre
In earlier times, the joys and sorrows of life were depicted based on the six seasons
Spring (Mid-March to Mid-May), Summer (Mid-May to Mid-July), Monsoon (Mid-July to Mid-September), Autumn (Mid-September to Mid-November), Pre-Winter (Mid-November to Mid-January), Winter (Mid-January to Mid-March).
of the Indic and Panjabi calendar. This was called ‘Khat Ritu Varnan’ (description of six seasons) or ‘Ruti’ (seasons). Later, when the same joys and sorrows of life began to be described through the divisions of the twelve months of the year, this came to be known as ‘Barah Maha.’ There was not much variation between the two with respect to subject. The only difference was in appearance. But with the passage of time, ‘Khat Ritu Varnan’ began to be used to express happiness, and ‘Barah Masa’ or ‘Barah Maha’ to describe the pain of separation. For example, Malik Muhammad Jayasi, in his epic Padmavat (1528 CE), describes Maharani Padmini’s love games in ‘Khat Ritu Varnan,’ and portrays Queen Nagmati, distraught by the demise of King Ratansen, through ‘Barah Masa’ (June-July to May-June).
Piara Singh Padam, Panjabi Baran Mahe, page 35.

From a literary point of view, ‘Barah Maha’ is a form of folk song. Most of the time, in this folk-poetry, the female-protagonist spends eleven months in separation, and in the twelfth month she is united. Similar arrangement is mentioned in both the 'Barah Maha' Banis recorded in the Guru Granth Sahib. According to the existing research, the oldest 'Barah Maha' in Indian literature is the thirteenth century work in Apabhransh named ‘Dharam Suri Stuti,' which has been given the title ‘Barah Navau.’
Piara Singh Padam, Panjabi Baran Mahe, page 37.
According to Shambhunath, ‘Barah Mahas’ also exist in the literature of the main languages ​​of northern India (Panjabi, Hindi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, etc.).
Shambhunath (editor), Hindi Sahitya Gyan Kosh, volume 5, page 2429.
But in Panjabi literature, this ‘Barah Maha,’ revealed by Guru Nanak Sahib in Rag Tukhari, proves to be the oldest ‘Barah Maha.’
Dr. Ratan Singh Jaggi, Guru Granth Vishavkosh, part two (ja-ṛa), page 285.

Apart from the two ‘Barah Mahas’ recorded in the Guru Granth Sahib, two compositions of the same name are also found in the Dasam Granth. The first composition is titled ‘Barah Maha;’ it extends from stanza 867 to 879 of ‘Krishnavtar.’ The second ‘Barah Maha’ (from stanza 911 to 925) does not bear the title ‘Barah Maha,’ but the note
iti srī bicitra nāṭake granthe, krisnāvatāre, brih nāṭak, bārahmāh sampūranamast. -Randhir Singh (editor), Shabdarth Dasam Granth Sahib (volume two), page 483.
given at its end provides evidence for it qualifying as ‘Barah Maha.’ Bhai Bahlo, a Sikh of Guru Arjan Sahib, is also reported to have composed 'Barah Maha,’
Prem Prakash Singh, Guru Nanak Te Nirgun Dhara, page 36.
but its original text is unavailable.

In addition to the above mentioned ‘Barah Maha’ from the Dasam Granth, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha mentions another ‘Barah Maha’ written in 1820 by a Sikh named Vir Singh.
Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, Mahan Kosh, page 855.
In this work, he portrays Guru Gobind Singh Sahib as the protagonist and gives details of his battles in accordance with the twelve months. Prof. Piara Singh Padam has recorded it under the title of ‘Baramaha Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji Ka’ in his book
Piara Singh Padam, Panjabi Baran Mahe, page 150-155.

Panjabi poets of medieval and modern times have built a long tradition of ‘Barah Maha.’ In this tradition, the names of medieval poets like Bulhe Shah, Shah Murad, Gurdas Singh, Hafiz Barkhurdar, and those of modern poets like Pal Singh Arif, Waryam Singh, Bhagwan Singh, Maula Bakhsh Kushta, Amrita Pritam, are worth mentioning. Prof. Piara Singh Padam has included hundred Barah Mahas in his book ‘Panjabi Baran Mahe.’

In the Guru Granth Sahib, like ‘Barah Maha,’ compositions based on seasons, dates, days, quarters (of the day), etc., are also available, such as:
  • ‘Ruti,’ based on the six months of the Indic and Panjabi calendar year.
  • ‘Thiti,’ based on the dates (thit) related to the aspects that are counted according to the position of the moon [a fortnight of light (sudi) and a fortnight of dark (vadi) of a lunar month].
  • ‘Var Sat,’ based on the seven days of the week.
  • ‘Din Raini,’ based on day and night.
  • ‘Pahare,’ based on the four quarters of the day or night.
The objective of ‘Barah Maha’ recorded in the Guru Granth Sahib
With the changing of seasons comes a change in the appearance of nature. Sometimes the heat of summer, sometimes the chill of winter, sometimes blooming, sometimes wilting. This change in nature also influences a change in the inner state of a human being. The blossoming of nature evokes happiness and ecstasy in a seeker, and the withering of nature consequently induces sadness and apathy. If these two conflicting tendencies collide with each other in the mind, they become imbalanced, and they can have a profoundly negative impact on life. But if their power is channelized through the tools of wisdom and devotion, and connected to their Origin (IkOankar) then life turns into ambrosial-living. The channeling of these tendencies through connection to IkOankar is the purpose of the composition ‘Barah Maha.’
Adapted from Bhai Joginder Singh Talwara, Satik Barah Maha (Rag Majh Te Tukhari), page 75.

Dr. Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh beautifully captures the purpose of ‘Barah Maha’ thus: “The theme of cosmic unity is especially prominent in Guru Nanak's calendar poetry, a collection of hymn-verses called Bara Mah or ‘Twelve Months’ which belongs to a genre called the viraha (separation). The Sikh literary tradition uses the viraha classification to depict month by month the suffering of the bride separated from the Groom against the backdrop of the changing seasons, including the lunar and solar cycles. Simultaneously, the poem depicts the changes in space, that is, the impact of the seasons upon its inhabitants of diverse species - those born from the egg (andaj), those born from the fetus (jeraj), those born from the sweat (setaj), and those born from the earth (utbhuj). Integral to this cosmic time and space is the bride. Through her ardent search for the Bridegroom, cameos of the changing reality are captured in vivid, poignant images and fitted harmoniously into a ‘system.’”
Dr. Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh, The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent, page 99.

At the beginning of every month, the day when the Sun enters from one zodiac sign to another is called ‘Sangrand.’ Those who worship the sun as a deity consider Sangrand to be auspicious. But this belief creates superstition where certain days or times are believed to be good or bad depending on the position of the planets and stars. However, according to the Gurmat (Guru-Wisdom), all months, days, and times have been created by the Creator; so all are favorable or auspicious.
be das māh rutī thitī vār bhale. ghaṛī mūrat pal sāce āe sahaji mile. -Guru Granth Sahib 1109
Therefore, according to Gurmat, there is no unique significance of Sangrand. There is the significance of remembrance (simran) alone. Therefore, that month, day, hour, and moment, which is spent in remembrance, becomes fruitful, because only through remembrance (simran) does the mortal become the recipient of IkOankar’s grace.
Adapted from Bhai Joginder Singh Talwara, Satik Barah Maha (Rag Majh Te Tukhari), page 75.